At present, individual techniques, including intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution, use of tranexamic acid, use of intrathecal morphine, proper positioning, and modification of operative techniques, seem most promising for reducing perioperative blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing major spine surgery.
 

Other techniques including preoperative autologous predonation; mandatory discontinuation of use of antiplatelet agents; intraoperative and postoperative red-blood-cell salvage; use of aprotinin, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, recombinant factor VIIa, or desmopressin; induced hypotension; avoidance of hypothermia; and minimally invasive operative techniques require additional studies to either establish their effectiveness or address safety considerations.

 

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