Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Jan;53(1):16-21
Beneficial effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution in cardiovascular surgery.
Taketani T, Motomura N, Toyokawa S, Kotsuka Y, Takamoto S.
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in avoiding homologous blood transfusion (HBT) during cardiovascular surgery remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of ANH on blood transfusion requirements during open cardiovascular surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 243 patients who had undergone open cardiac or thoracic aortic surgery using CPB between September 2001 and July 2003 in our department. ANH was performed when the hematocrit was over 35% and the patient was hemodynamically stable. Risk factors were selected in accordance with the Japanese Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database and analyzed to determine their effect on perioperative HBT requirement. RESULTS: Of the 243 patients, 64 (26%) underwent preoperative autologous blood donation and 62 (26%) ANH. HBT was required in 62% of patients (150/243) overall, in 32% (20/62) of ANH patients, and in 76% (130/171) of non-ANH patients. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative or pre-donation hemoglobin value (p < 0.001), duration of surgery (p = 0.001), intraoperative minimum rectal temperature (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.002), need for emergency surgery (p = 0.003), amount of ANH (p = 0.018), blood loss (p = 0.033) and amount of preoperative autologous blood donation (p = 0.042) were independent predictors of the need for perioperative HBT. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that open cardiovascular surgery using CPB continues to pose a high risk of HBT, but that ANH is an effective means of reducing this risk in those patients undergoing these operations.